Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)
Setting the Standard for Alzheimer Research
|Bibliography of Key NPI Studies|
Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44: 2308-2314.
This is the original NPI reference establishing the test-retest and inter-rater reliability and the validity of the 10 item NPI.
Cummings JL. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Neurology 1997;48:S10-S16.
This paper introduces the 2 additional items of the 12-item NPI: sleep/nighttime behavior disturbances and appetite/eating disturbances
Kaufer DI, Cummings JL, Christine D, Bray T, Castellon S, Masterman D, MacMillan A, Ketchel P, DeKosky ST. Assessing the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:210-215.
This study added the caregiver distress scale to the NPI; the distress scale is now an integrated component of the standard NPI.
Wood S, Cummings JL, Hsu M-A, Barclay T, Wheatley MV, Yarema KT, Schnelle JF. The use of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in nursing home residents: characterization and measurement. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;8:75-83.
This investigation showed the psychometric properties of the NPI-Nursing Home Version (NPI-NH) for use with professional staff and residential patients.
Tekin S, Mega MS, Masterman DL, Chow T, Garakian J, Vinters HV, Cummings JL. Orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex neurofibrillary tangle burden is associated with agitation in Alzheimer disease. Ann Neurol 2001;49:355-361.
In this research, the methodology for using the NPI to interview caregivers of deceased patients is described.